Energy-dense alternative fuels will be required to make these modes of transport more climate-friendly.
In the long run, hydrogen appears to be a promising option to power both trucks and ships. However, hydrogen is currently prohibitively expensive, and the development of refuelling infrastructure is needed to make its use a commercial reality. In the short-to-medium term, a switch to sustainable biofuels such as renewable diesel or biomethane can reduce the climate impact of road freight and shipping.
You can read Nathan’s full opinion piece on RTE Brainstorm here